In 1861, on what proved to be his death-bed. Prosper Meniere, Director of the Paris Institution for Deaf-Mutes, described an affliction characterised by sudden attacks of deafness, noise in the ear, pallor, nausea and giddiness. The onset usually occurs between 40 and 60 years of age. In about a quarter of cases, the opposite ear later becomes affected. The disease is associated with distension of the membranous labyrinth due to Increased endolymphatic pressure, but the underlying cause remains unknown. A brilliant scholar and a well-known otologist of his day, Meniere died shortly after this epoch- making paper, which was to perpetuate his name had appeared.

      Meniere was born at Angers, on the Loire, the third of four children of a tradesman. He received his early education at the Lycee of his native town, and went to Paris to study for the medical profession in 1819. His student career was a brilliant one. He was awarded a Gold Medal in 1826. and obtained his M.D. in 1828. He was acting as clinical assistant to baron Dupuytren at the Hotel Dieu, at the time of the political trouble of July and August, 1830. when more than 2,000 wounded rioters were admitted to the hospitals of Paris in one day. Meniere wrote a vivid account of his experiences in the casualty department of the-Hotel Dieu, and later this was published in book form.

       In. 1832 Meniere was appointed assistant professor in the Paris faculty of medicine, but his career was Interrupted in an unexpected manner. At the suggestion of a friend who was an eminent medicolegal expert, Meniere was nominated by the government of King Louis Philippe to ascertain whether the Duchesse de Berry was pregnant. The Duchess, who was the widow of the murdered Due de Berry, son of Charles X of Prance, had landed near Marsellle In April, 1832, In an attempt to secure the throne for her 11-year-old son. Her followers were captured and Imprisoned In the castle of Blays. Menlere found that the Duchess was pregnant, and in due course she gave birth to a daughter, the fruit of a secret marriage to an Italian nobleman. The discovery of this marriage and the arival of the baby deprived the Duchess of the sympathies of other supporters. No longer an object of fear to the French government, she was released and Menlere accompanied her to Naples.

      Upon his return to Paris Meniere acted for a short time as assistant to Professor Chomel.

      In 1835 he was sent to the departments of Aude and Haute-Oaronne to supervise measures for the prevention of cholera, which was epidemic at the time. In 1637 he applied for the vacant professorship of medicine and hygiene, writing a brilliant thesis on clothing and cosmetics. He was unsuccessful, but In the following year he secured the appointment of physician-in-chief to the Institution for Deaf-Mutes, Henceforth his professional work lay almost entirely In the field of otology. Menlere was a well-known figure In the Intellectual world of Pario, and was intimate with Balzac, Victor Hugo and other great writers as well as with the leading medical men. He was himself a highly cultured man and his life-long study of the Oreek and Latin classics was responsible for two learned volumes on Medical Studies on the Latin Poets and on Cicero as a Physician.

      Menlere married In 1838 Mile, Becquerel, a member of the same family as Antoinc Becquerel, the discoverer of radioactivity. Their son, Dr. Emilc Menlere, was also a noted otologist. Prosper Menlere died on 7th February, 1862, of influenzal pneumonia.

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