Begining Antomy
       Since time immemorial man has been interested in the inspection of interior of the body Cavity. But they could not make it possible till middle age, because the dissection of human body was then a punishable offence. In 1400 AD, during renaissance, denying the strictures of the church anatomical dissection was begun and with that the truth of the human anatomy began to come out.
Begining of Clinical Examination
Anatomical dissection though not essential for the inspection of Ear, Nose and Throat, was then difficult for the want of artificial light and equipmental facilities. Allopathic system of medicine had its origin in Egypt, Greece and Italy.
European Countries usually remain in darkness even in day time due to want of sunlight except for few days in summer time. At the time of Hippocrates, for examination of ENT, the solar light was then only source of illumination. This is the reason why Hippocrates, Galen etc could not contribute much about ENT diseases. Then came the idea of using artificial light like candle, oil lamp etc for ENT Examination. In I855 AD, Prof Anton Von Trotsch designed a handy reflector to examine the interior of the ear canal using the solar light. In1863 AD,
A reflector Fitted with a spectacles was then devised by Kramer. This helped a clinician to get both his hands free for tackling his patients, but the Source of light, be it artificial or solar, was too insufficient for the purpose of examination.
Aural Speculum
           For examination of the ear, in 1827 AD, an aural speculum was first designed by Dr.New Bourg of Brussel. It was 4 inches long and made of horn. Afterwards, in 1844 AD, it's size was shortened by Igner Gurber of Vienna. The Credit of introducing this in the profession goes to Sir William Wild in 1844 AD.
Tongue Depressor
       In 1860 AD, For proper examination of mouth cavity, two metalic tongue depressors were first designed by Fraenkel and Turck. They were finally modified by Lack Which are still in use.
Nasal Speculum
       In 1870 AD, for anterior rhinoscopy, two types of Nasal Speculum were designed by Fraenkel and Duplay. Then came the Kramer, Killian and Thudichum Nasal speculums.
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